Social Dialogue with Embodied Conversational Agents
Bickmore, T. & Cassell, J.
Natural, Intelligent and Effective Interaction with Multimodal Dialogue Systems. New York: Kluwer Academic
ABSTRACT:Human-human dialogue does not just comprise statements about the task at hand, about the joint and separate goals of the interlocutors, and about their plans. In human-human conversation participants often engage in talk that, on the surface, does not seem to move the dialogue forward at all. However, this talk – about the weather, current events, and many other topics without significant overt relationship to the task at hand -- may, in fact, be essential to how humans obtain information about one another's goals and plans and decide whether collaborative work is worth engaging in at all. For example, realtors use small talk to gather information to form stereotypes (a collection of frequently co-occurring characteristics) of their clients – people who drive minivans are more likely to have children, and therefore to be searching for larger homes in neighbourhoods with good schools. Realtors—and salespeople in general—also use small talk to increase intimacy with their clients, to establish their own expertise, and to manage how and when they present information to the client (Prus, 1989). Nonverbal behavior plays an especially important role in such social dialogue, as evidenced by the fact that most important business meetings are still conducted face-to- face rather than on the phone. This intuition is backed up by empirical research; several studies have found that the additional nonverbal cues provided by video-mediated communication do not effect performance in task-oriented interactions, but in interactions of a more social nature, such as getting acquainted or negotiation, video is superior (Whittaker & O'Conaill, 1997). These studies have found that for social tasks, interactions were more personalized, less argumentative and more polite when conducted via video-mediated communication, that participants believed video-mediated (and face-to-face) communication was superior, and that groups conversing using video-mediated communication tended to like each other more, compared to audio-only interactions. Together, these findings indicate that if we are to develop computer agents capable of performing as well as humans on tasks such as real estate sales then, in addition to task goals such reliable and efficient information delivery, they must have the appropriate social competencies designed into them. Further, since these competencies include the use of nonverbal behaviour for conveying communicative and social cues, then our agents must have the capability of producing and recognizing nonverbal cues in simulations of face-to-face interactions. We call agents with such capabilities “Embodied Conversational Agents” or “ECAs.”