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Towards a Model of Face-to-Face Grounding

Yukiko Nakano, Gabe Reinstein, Tom Stocky, and Justine Cassell


We investigate the verbal and nonverbal means for grounding, and propose a design for embodied conversational agents that relies on both kinds of signals to establish common ground in human-computer interaction. We analyzed eye gaze, head nods and attentional focus in the context of a direction-giving task. The distribution of nonverbal behaviors differed depending on the type of dialogue move being grounded, and the overall pattern reflected a monitoring of lack of negative feedback. Based on these results, we present an ECA that uses verbal and nonverbal grounding acts to update dialogue state.

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